Research of the reading and learning process has gotten very sophisticated in the last decade.  We are now able to combine the sciences of neurobiology, the science of the brain, and cognitive psychology, the science of the mind, to study the intellectual acquisition of the written word even at the molecular level.  We now know that as the level of reading becomes more complex, the brain becomes involved at deeper and more varied levels.  The ability to read and learn becomes a barometer of neural health, and is an indicator of how well the sensory-motor and perceptual systems integrate with each other.

Dr. Linda Lipstein, O.D., M.Ed. 1997


Arch Gen Psychiatry, MTA Cooperative Group. A 14-month randomized clinical trial of treatment strategy for ADD/HD disorder. 1999; 56:1073-86. (cited in Who We Can Help:  ADD/HD)

Arch Ophthalmol. 2008; 126 (10): 1336-1349.

Cooper, J. Cooper, R.  Conditions Associated with Strabismus: Convergence Insufficiency.  Optometrists Network, All About Strabismus.  2001-2005. (cited in Who We Can Help: CI)  (cited in Who We Can Help/Dyslexia)  (cited in Who We Can Help: Dyslexia)

Emanuel, D., Ficca, Kristen N. Korczak, P. American Journal of Audiology.  Survey of the Diagnosis and Management of Auditory Processing Disorder. Vol 20.48-60 June 2011. (cited in Who We Can Help: Auditory Processing Disorder and referenced in BLOG 6-10-16)

First Edition Design Inc, (Author)  Same Journey Different Paths, Stories of Auditory Processing Disorder, 2013 (cited in Who We Can Help/Auditory Processing Disorder)

Great School Partnership, the Glossary of Education Reform.  11-12-15 (cited in About Our Assessments)      see below for complete definition of “Standardized Test.” *

Informal Surveys, definition listed below. **

Journal of Optometric Visual Science, 2009.  April: 86 (4) 357-363. (cited in About our Assessments)

Lambert B., A Compromised Generation: The Epidemic of Chronic Illness in America’s Children, 2010. (cited in The Whole Child)

Moats, L, & Tolman, C (2009). Excerpted from Language Essentials for Teachers of Reading and Spelling (LETRS): The Challenge of Learning to Read (Module 1). Boston: Sopris West.

Moore D, Richardson M, Gwernan-Jones R. et al.  Non-pharmacological interventons for ADHD in school settings:  A overarching synthesis of systematic reviews.  J Attention Disorders 2015 Published online 3-9-15.

National Institute for Health and Care and Excellence.  ADH disorder: diagnosis and management of ADHD in children, young people and adults.  (Clinical guidance c72.) 2008; modified 2013.

Parra, J. MultiSensory Processing Reading Center, 2016.  (cited in Who We Can Help: Dyslexia)

Riddle MA, Yershova K, Lazzaretto D, et al. The Preschool Attention Deficit Treatment Study (PATS) 6-year-follow-up.  J AM Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2013:52: 264-78.  e2. (cited in Who We Can Help/ADD/HD)

Scheiman, M. Mitchell GL. Cotter S. et al:  the Convergency Insufficiency Treatment Trial (CITT) Study Group. A randomized clinical trial of treatments for convergence insufficiency in children. Archives of Ophthalmology.  2015:123:14-24. (cited in Who We Can Help: CI)

The World Bank. Rethinking School Health: A Key Component of Education for All the World.  February, 2011. (cited in The Whole Child) (cited in Who We Can Help: Dyslexia) (cited in Who We Can Help: CI)

*   A standardized test is any form of test that (1) requires all test takers to answer the same questions, or a selection of questions from common bank of questions, in the same way, and that (2) is scored in a “standard” or consistent manner, which makes it possible to compare the relative performance of individual students or groups of students.  (definition provided by The Great Schools Partnership.  11-12-15)

**  Informal Surveys are used to identify behavior that are related to a particular disorder.  When an informal survey is given, it usually means that there are no scientifically validated studies and/or tests that have been standardized to identify this learning pattern.